2009年2月6日星期五

顶级域名和二级域名概念模糊

-co.cc是几级域名?
-顶级
-不对,是二级
-我说是顶级就是顶级你怎么这么犟
-!@#&*(开打)

现在网上出现了许多免费域名,有的一看就可以看出是二级域名,主页上也有标识(标识,识zhì)为二级域名。但有的免费域名却打着顶级域名的旗号到处宣传,而且其域名后缀很短,很难辨认出其到底是顶级还是二级域名。说明现在互联网上对顶级域名和次级域名认识模糊。

我就以co.cc和net.ru为例子,来鉴定到底是几级域名。

(注:次级域名是二、三、四、五……级域名的总称)

决定域名是否是顶级域名的一个重要因素就是它是否可以whois到。
这里我用的万网whois,其实哪个whois查询服务都一样。
首先whois:net.ru 查到的信息有点怪,其中其种类项目显示为:net.ru 类型:GENERIC(意思是后缀、种类)。

domain: NET.RU
type: GENERIC
nserver: ns.spb.ru.
nserver: e.dns.ripn.net.
nserver: ns.ripn.net.
nserver: ns2.ripn.net.
nserver: ns5.msk-ix.net.
nserver: ns9.ripn.net.
state: REGISTERED, DELEGATED
org: ANO "Russian Institute for Public Networks"
phone: +7 499 1967278
phone: +7 495 7370601
fax-no: +7 499 1964984
fax-no: +7 495 7370602
e-mail: ru-ncc@ripn.net
registrar: RIPN-REG-RIPN
created: 1997.07.10
paid-till: 2009.08.01
source: TC-RIPN


domain: NET.RU
type: GENERIC
descr: Russian and non-Russian organizations involved
descr: in development of the Internet
admin-o: RIPN-ORG-RIPN
nserver: e.dns.ripn.net.
nserver: ns.ripn.net.
nserver: ns.spb.ru.
nserver: ns2.ripn.net.
nserver: ns5.msk-ix.net.
nserver: ns9.ripn.net.
created: 1997.07.10
state: Delegated till 2009.11.29
changed: 2008.12.16
mnt-by: RIPN-MNT-RIPN
source: RIPN

org: ANO "Russian Institute for Public Networks"
nic-hdl: RIPN-ORG-RIPN
admin-c: RU-NCC-RIPN
bill-c: AL86-RIPE
bill-c: AAP1-RIPE
phone: +7 499 1967278
phone: +7 495 7370601
fax-no: +7 499 1964984
fax-no: +7 495 7370602
e-mail: ru-ncc@ripn.net
changed: 2006.01.17
mnt-by: RIPN-MNT-RIPN
source: RIPN

person: RIPN RU NCC GROUP
nic-hdl: RU-NCC-RIPN
address: Russian Institute for Public Networks
address: 1 Kurchatov square
address: 123182 Moscow
address: Russia
phone: +7 495 737 0601
fax-no: +7 495 737 0602
e-mail: ru-ncc@ripn.net
changed: 2004.08.24
mnt-by: RIPN-MNT-RIPN
source: RIPN

Last updated on 2009.02.06 09:09:34 MSK/MSD

然后whois:ltx.net.ru 就是正常的域名所有人信息,完全和顶级域名的信息一样,只不过是英文
domain: LTX.NET.RU
type: CORPORATE
descr: lantianxia
admin-o: WYKKAI-RIPN
nserver: ns1.dnspod.net.
nserver: ns2.dnspod.net.
nserver: ns3.dnspod.net.
nserver: ns4.dnspod.net.
nserver: ns5.dnspod.net.
nserver: ns6.dnspod.net.
created: 2008.10.26
state: Delegated
changed: 2008.11.20
mnt-by: YZF123-MNT-RIPN
source: RIPN

person: ZHOU LIGUANG
nic-hdl: WYKKAI-RIPN
address: Zhou Liguang
address: NO.100-14,56 Team 56 Listless, Dama Road, Changchun Province, China
phone: +86 431 8489587
fax-no: +86 431 8489587
e-mail: kairipn@gmail.com
changed: 2006.08.02
mnt-by: WYKAI-MNT-RIPN
source: RIPN

Last updated on 2009.02.06 09:18:43 MSK/MSD


接下来whois:hbhl.cc(一个普通的cc后缀域名顶级域名,个人注册,企业使用),whois到的信息格式记下来作参考。
Whois Server Version 1.0

Domain names can now be registered with many different competing registrars.
Go to http://registrar.verisign-grs.com/whois/ for detailed information.

Domain Name: HBHL.CC
Registrar: BIZCN.COM, INC.
Whois Server: whois.bizcn.com
Referral URL: http://www.bizcn.com
Name Server: NS1.4EVERDNS.COM
Name Server: NS2.4EVERDNS.COM
Status: CLIENT-XFER-PROHIBITED
Status: CLIENT-DELETE-PROHIBITED
Updated Date: 20-jan-2009
Creation Date: 04-aug-2008
Expiration Date: 04-aug-2010


>>> Last update of whois database: Thu, 5 Feb 2009 20:03:35 EST <<<

NOTICE: The expiration date displayed in this record is the date the
registrar's sponsorship of the domain name registration in the registry is
currently set to expire. This date does not necessarily reflect the
expiration date of the domain name registrant's agreement with the
sponsoring registrar. Users may consult the sponsoring registrar's
Whois database to view the registrar's reported date of expiration
for this registration.

TERMS OF USE: You are not authorized to access or query our Whois
database through the use of electronic processes that are high-volume and
automated except as reasonably necessary to register domain names or
modify existing registrations; the Data in VeriSign's ("VeriSign") Whois
database is provided by VeriSign for information purposes only, and to
assist persons in obtaining information about or related to a domain name
registration record. VeriSign does not guarantee its accuracy.
By submitting a Whois query, you agree to abide by the following terms of
use: You agree that you may use this Data only for lawful purposes and that
under no circumstances will you use this Data to: (1) allow, enable, or
otherwise support the transmission of mass unsolicited, commercial
advertising or solicitations via e-mail, telephone, or facsimile; or
(2) enable high volume, automated, electronic processes that apply to
VeriSign (or its computer systems). The compilation, repackaging,
dissemination or other use of this Data is expressly prohibited without
the prior written consent of VeriSign. You agree not to use electronic
processes that are automated and high-volume to access or query the
Whois database except as reasonably necessary to register domain names
or modify existing registrations. VeriSign reserves the right to restrict
your access to the Whois database in its sole discretion to ensure
operational stability. VeriSign may restrict or terminate your access to the
Whois database for failure to abide by these terms of use. VeriSign
reserves the right to modify these terms at any time.

The Registry database contains ONLY .cc, .tv, and .jobs domains
and Registrars.

[whois.bizcn.com]

The data in this whois database is provided to you for information
purposes only, that is, to assist you in obtaining information about or
related to a domain name registration record. We make this information
available "as is," and do not guarantee its accuracy. By submitting a
whois query, you agree that you will use this data only for lawful
purposes and that, under no circumstances will you use this data to: (1)
enable high volume, automated, electronic processes that stress or load
this whois database system providing you this information; or (2) allow,
enable, or otherwise support the transmission of mass unsolicited,
commercial advertising or solicitations via direct mail, electronic
mail, or by telephone. The compilation, repackaging, dissemination or
other use of this data is expressly prohib
ited without prior written
consent from us. We reserve the right to modify these terms at any time.
By submitting this query, you agree to abide by these terms.

Domain name: hbhl.cc

Registrant Contact:
zhang guo wei
guo wei zhang info@hbhl.cc
+86.1088469567 fax: +86.1088468321
beijingshihaidianquyuandalu
beijing Beijing 100097
cn

Administrative Contact:
guo wei zhang info@010-idc.com
+86.1088469567 fax: +86.1088468321
beijingshihaidianquyuandalu
beijing Beijing 100097
cn

Technical Contact:
guo wei zhang info@010-idc.com
+86.1088469567 fax: +86.1088468321
beijingshihaidianquyuandalu
beijing Beijing 100097
cn

Billing Contact:
guo wei zhang info@010-idc.com
+86.1088469567 fax: +86.1088468321
beijingshihaidianquyuandalu
beijing Beijing 100097
cn

DNS:
ns1.4everdns.com
ns2.4everdns.com

Created: 2008-08-04
Expires: 2010-08-04

[HiChina Format]
Domain Name ..................... hbhl.cc
Name Server ..................... ns1.4everdns.com
ns2.4everdns.com
Registrant Name ................. guo wei zhang
Registrant Organization ......... zhang guo wei
Registrant Address .............. beijingshihaidianquyuandalu
beijing Beijing 100097
cn
Registrant City ................. beijing
Registrant Province/State ....... Beijing
Registrant Postal Code .......... 100097
Registrant Country Code ......... cn
Registrant Phone Number ......... +86.1088469567
Registrant Fax .................. +86.1088468321
Registrant Email ................ info@hbhl.cc
Administrative Name ............. guo wei zhang
Administrative Address .......... beijingshihaidianquyuandalu
beijing Beijing 100097
cn
Administrative City ............. beijing
Administrative Province/State ... Beijing
Administrative Postal Code ...... 100097
Administrative Country Code ..... cn
Administrative Phone Number ..... +86.1088469567
Administrative Fax .............. +86.1088468321
Administrative Email ............ info@010-idc.com
Billing Name .................... guo wei zhang
Billing Address ................. beijingshihaidianquyuandalu
beijing Beijing 100097
cn
Billing City .................... beijing
Billing Province/State .......... Beijing
Billing Postal Code ............. 100097
Billing Country Code ............ cn
Billing Phone Number ............ +86.1088469567
Billing Fax ..................... +86.1088468321
Billing Email ................... info@010-idc.com
Technical Name .................. guo wei zhang
Technical Address ............... beijingshihaidianquyuandalu
beijing Beijing 100097
cn
Technical City .................. beijing
Technical Province/State ........ Beijing
Technical Postal Code ........... 100097
Technical Country Code .......... cn
Technical Phone Number .......... +86.1088469567
Technical Fax ................... +86.1088468321
Technical Email ................. info@010-idc.com
Expiration Date ................. 2010-08-04

继续whois:co.cc,whois到的信息格式并不和“net.ru”一样,而是和hbhl.cc一样,说明他也是一个普通的cc域名。
Whois Server Version 1.0

Domain names can now be registered with many different competing registrars.
Go to http://registrar.verisign-grs.com/whois/ for detailed information.

Domain Name: CO.CC
Registrar: YESNIC CO. LTD.
Whois Server: whois.yesnic.com
Referral URL: http://www.yesnic.com
Name Server: NS1.CO.CC
Name Server: NS2.CO.CC
Status: ACTIVE
Updated Date: 01-oct-2008
Creation Date: 13-oct-1997
Expiration Date: 26-mar-2018


>>> Last update of whois database: Thu, 5 Feb 2009 20:03:35 EST <<<

NOTICE: The expiration date displayed in this record is the date the
registrar's sponsorship of the domain name registration in the registry is
currently set to expire. This date does not necessarily reflect the
expiration date of the domain name registrant's agreement with the
sponsoring registrar. Users may consult the sponsoring registrar's
Whois database to view the registrar's reported date of expiration
for this registration.

TERMS OF USE: You are not authorized to access or query our Whois
database through the use of electronic processes that are high-volume and
automated except as reasonably necessary to register domain names or
modify existing registrations; the Data in VeriSign's ("VeriSign") Whois
database is provided by VeriSign for information purposes only, and to
assist persons in obtaining information about or related to a domain name
registration record. VeriSign does not guarantee its accuracy.
By submitting a Whois query, you agree to abide by the following terms of
use: You agree that you may use this Data only for lawful purposes and that
under no circumstances will you use this Data to: (1) allow, enable, or
otherwise support the transmission of mass unsolicited, commercial
advertising or solicitations via e-mail, telephone, or facsimile; or
(2) enable high volume, automated, electronic processes that apply to
VeriSign (or its computer systems). The compilation, repackaging,
dissemination or other use of this Data is expressly prohibited without
the prior written consent of VeriSign. You agree not to use electronic
processes that are automated and high-volume to access or query the
Whois database except as reasonably necessary to register domain names
or modify existing registrations. VeriSign reserves the right to restrict
your access to the Whois database in its sole discretion to ensure
operational stability. VeriSign may restrict or terminate your access to the
Whois database for failure to abide by these terms of use. VeriSign
reserves the right to modify these terms at any time.

The Registry database contains ONLY .cc, .tv, and .jobs domains
and Registrars.

[whois.yesnic.com]
-----------------------------------------------
Queried Domain Information as follows
-----------------------------------------------

Domain Name : co.cc

::Registrant::
Name : JONG SUNG, KIM
Email : katoffel@nate.com
Address : 864-2, JANGHANGDONG, ILSAN, GOYANG,GYEOUNGGI
Zipcode : 410837
Nation : KR
Tel : +82.319196171
Fax : +82.319196150

::Name Servers::
NS1.CO.CC
NS2.CO.CC

::Dates & Status::
1997-10-13 00:00:00.0
2018-03-26 13:00:00.0

有的朋友可能会发现,他的DNS服务器也是co.cc后缀,其实这很简单:它注册时随便弄个DNS服务器地址,等域名生效后在自己架设DNS服务器,然后自己的域名DNS绑到自己的服务器上,很简单吧!


最后whois:co.cc后缀的免费域名,试了许多whois服务器,结果都一样:没有任何资料。如图。


关于whois资料,每个顶级域名都有自己的whois资料,而二级域名就无权注册whois资料。由此判定,net.ru后缀为顶级域名,co.cc后缀为二级域名。
如果按照格式分的话,net.ru是二级域名,**.net.ru是三级域名,ru才是顶级域名,**.ru也是二级域名,有一个点就是一级,没点才是顶级。不过没人这么分。这么分的话